Sunday, November 3, 2019
Week 7 Hand-In - Assignment Example By such restriction the data will remain consistent or in other words it will be independent of the programs using it. The concept of data independence helps to improve the maintenance and management of database in single user environment (Wisegeek, 2011). End users, usually those who have no or very little knowledge about computers take advantage of application software (Toolbox, 2008). While on the other hand, database can be created, maintained or modified by its users through database management system. There are numerous advantages in separating the application software from database management system. One of the foremost advantages is better load balancing which means that different machines can be used for application software and database management system. This increases the overall efficiency of the entire system. Another advantage of separation of application software from the database management system is that it results in making the entire system more secure. This increase in security is necessary because end users are in contact with application software and in the database very important data is stored. Even very little change in the database can result in major faults and failures (Ramirez, 2000). Answer: Programmers or designers of database management system are not responsible to check vacancy on each flight. The user who is concerned with flight 243 will perform this operation and will check this vacancy. The user will enter into the application software to see the availability of flights. When he will click on the flight number 243 then it will be checked in the database that is there any seat in the flight available. Answer: A relation is a term which deals with database. At the time of designing of database management system it must be decided that how database entities, relations, tables etc within a database must be stored. Therefore, it is responsibility of designer of DBMS software to perform the operation
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Critique a TV or radio commercial, an Internet advertisement, or a print for Gastroesphageal (Gerd) use Nexium for the medication - Essay Example This disease is affecting more and more individuals each day, including very young children. This paper investigates two kinds of treatment for GERD, one is FDA-approved and the other is not. Looking at their advertisements and reports of use online, the paper determines which treatment is better for patients with GERD. GERD is becoming more and more common nowadays and what was once thought as a simple nuisance related to eating has now been recognized as a disease (Maranto, 2001). GERD is characterized by acid reflux coming from the stomach and reaching the esophagus, causing the patient to vomit, feel uneasy, suffer from chronic cough, laryngitis, abdominal pain, dysphagia, anemia, weight loss, or even asthma. There are some cases where the patient even experienced heartburn (FDA, 2008), making the symptoms quite vague to determine. Some experience reflux after eating a large meal or enjoying their favourite dish. This led to the belief that GERD is triggered by some food ingredients. Still others thought the disease is caused by overeating, thus they watched their diet but still experienced the same problem. Although the main cause of GERD was not yet revealed, experts have made different solutions to remedy the problem. On the conservative side, people were asked to watch their diet, eat nutritious food, and avoid stress. However, others were prescribed to undergo surgery, which did not help as patients experienced more problems later on, including cancer of the esophagus (Tygat, 2002). Experts have yielded to the belief that surgery is least required; therefore resorting to medical treatments. The two treatments investigated in the paper are Nexium and Betaine Hydrocloride (Hcl) with Pepsin. Approved for drug use by the FDA for the treatment of GERD including young children age 1-11 years (Ã¢â¬Å"NexiumÃ¢â¬ , 2008), Nexium is composed of esomeprazole magnesium in liquid and capsule form. It is manufactured by
Tuesday, October 29, 2019
Report on apple and INTO giving - Assignment Example It raises funds through various activities such as the 2009 event when they drove three second hand vehicles across many countries to raise money for charity in Gambia (Finkle and Mallin, 2010). Apple is a corporation and a profit making organization, it is owned by different shareholders (Dediu, 2013). On contrary, INTO Giving is a non-profit making organization. It is owned by INTO university partnership with the aim of facilitating education access to the less fortunate children in the world. The fact that the ownership is different, itÃ¢â¬â¢s suitable since the owners have different interests in the organization. Apple`s owners are profit driven while INTO Giving`s owners aim at helping the needy. INTO Giving has an organization structure that comprises the following, the board chairman, director and Treasurer, operations director and the fundraising and communications manager. The members of this organization`s manages the organization to meet the charity work which is its main. On the other hand, apple has an organization structure that comprises the following, the board chairman, senior vice presidents from various departments, vice presidents and the employees (Dediu, 2013; Yang, 2013). The structure of the two organizations differs because of their goals of operation resulting to omission of some departments. (Polidoro, 2012) It is the beliefs, values, norms, languages, way of doing things and habits in an organization (Ravasi and Schultz, 2006). AppleÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is collaborative and the company is organized like a start-up. The company recognizes performance and awarding its best employees (Yang, 2013). The Company also insists on accountability for all its employees, a culture it has maintained to date. On the other hand, INTO Giving has maintained a culture of monitoring the performance of its employees across the many countries it offers its charity services. INTO Giving mission states,
Sunday, October 27, 2019
The Importance Of The Goals Of Sentencing Criminology Essay The examination and understanding of contemporary criminal justice goals of sentencing is extremely important if scholars are to recognize the every-changing views of crime and punishment. It is common knowledge that crime has always existed as well as the need to punish criminals. While the standards of punishment and sentencing have changed from banishment and fines to torture and blood feuds (Senna Siegel, 2005), it is apparent by examining the goals of sentencing that the contemporary system of punishment is due in part to the formation of Common Law. Examination of the goals of sentencing reveals that there has been an obvious shift from the once acceptable physical punishment towards more humane sentencing options such as imprisonment, probation, parole, intermediate sanctions, indeterminate sentencing, determinate sentencing and the death penalty. Keywords: Goals of Sentencing, Sentencing Options, Concepts of Sentences In order to research the goals of sentencing, it is apparent that scholars must have access to a vast quantity of resources which are reliable as well as accessible. It is also important that a variety of research be examined which at a minimum should include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence (general and specific), rehabilitation and restoration, as well as the existence of imprisonment, probation, parole, intermediate sanctions, indeterminate sentencing, determinate sentencing and the death penalty. While today there are numerous goals and options available that the contemporary criminal justice system focuses on in regards to imposing punishments and sentences, it is obvious that the goals of sentencing have changed from punishments that were once geared toward satisfying the victim, to broader aspects which more recently have been found to focus on reducing recidivism. It is important to note that by examining and researching the various options available today in regards to sentencing, it becomes apparent that there is no longer a set of policies or straight forward sentencing, and what was once a standard punishment for a particular crime is now being replaced by individualized approaches. Literature Review Throughout researching the criminal justice curriculum, scholars are recommended to reference and examine the importance of the goals of sentencing which include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence (general and specific), rehabilitation, restoration, imprisonment, probation, parole, intermediate sanctions, indeterminate sentencing, determinate sentencing and the death penalty. While punishment refers to a negative response that is imposed on an individual due to committing an act that has been established by society as being inappropriate (Hugo, 2010), retribution, which is often referred to as a justification for punishment, involves the offender getting what they deserve. Retribution is often viewed as the practice of an eye-for-an-eye; thus a murderer being put to death for the crime of murder would be considered retribution. Incapacitation refers to the idea that if offenders are incarcerated, additional crimes are prevented thus the perception is that prisons contribute to the solution of crime prevention. Research conducted by Hemmens, Kifer, Stohr (2003) supports this theory with findings that suggest that jail and prison staffs are more likely to recognize the goal of corrections as being incapacitation. The focus on deterrence is divided into two categories which are general deterrence and specific deterrence. While general deterrence focuses on preventing the crime before it happens, specific deterrence focuses on how to reduce recidivism. While examining the two concepts of deterrence, Siegel (1992) discusses the importance of understanding the process that occurs prior to an individual choosing to commit a crime by stating before choosing to commit a crime, the reasoning criminal evaluates the risk of apprehension, the seriousness of the expected punishment, the value of the criminal enterprise, and his or her immediate need for criminal gain (Siegel, 1992, p. 131). Rehabilitation refers to the thought that offenders have underlying reasons for committing the crime and thus the chance of recidivism can be reduced if the offender is afforded the opportunity to have various types of rehabilitation including cognitive and rationale therapy, individual counseling and substance abuse groups. Gadek (2008-2010) discusses rehabilitation versus punishment and notes the cost effectiveness of rehabilitation versus strictly incarceration. Restorative justice is an approach that is based around the belief that offenders should be forced to take responsibility and show accountability for their actions, and the victim as well as the community affected, are paid back to some degree by offenders performing community service or paying restitution. Zehr (2002) discusses that restorative justice takes into consideration not only the victim, but considers what needs the victim and offender has and whose obligation it is to meet the identified needs. Discussion In researching the goals of sentencing, it is apparent that in contrast to the structure of the criminal justice system of twenty years ago, contemporary criminal justice systems have no standard approach. Although contemporary criminal justice policies are still referred to as tough-on-crime policies, most jurisdictions are now focusing on individualized programs. It is evident that there is no one single approach to sentencing an offender; yet in order to understand the fundamentals of crime and punishment, the goals of sentencing which are retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation and restoration must be examined. The principle that is commonly used to describe the ethics of law is that the punishment should fit the crime. Individuals who agree with this theory are increasingly in favor of retributive justice, which includes punishments such as an eye-for-an-eye and a hand-for-an-hand. According to Cavadino Dignan (1997), advocates who support retributive justice advocate that punishment is strictly utilized to punish offenders according to the severity of the crime committed. Maiese (2004) advocates that retributive justice is a matter of giving those who violate human rights law and commit crimes against humanity their just deserts (p. 2). While retributive justice serves to demand that the punishment fit the crime, research suggest that there are negative sides to enforcing the idea of retributive justice. Maiese (2004) discusses that when punishment is solely based on the degree of the crime committed, it is easy to place emphasis on revenge versus retributive justice. Maiese (2004) states like retribution, revenge is a response to wrongs committed against innocent victims and reflects the proportionality of the scales of justice (p. 2). While there are those that support harsh punishments against offenders, there are viable and effective alternatives to retributive justice such as restorative justice and psychiatric imprisonment. Restorative justice has become increasingly more popular as this theory focuses not only on the offender, but includes the victim and the communities that were impacted by the crime committed. Restorative justice places the responsibility on the offender to acknowledge how the crime affected the victim as well the community. It is important to note, that research has suggested that restorative justice is more commonly utilized with property offenses as well as civil and criminal offenses and has been considered ineffective and inappropriate to use with those convicted of drug offenses, domestic violence and sexual assault ( ). In contrast, restorative justice is the opposite of retributive justice in that restorative justice, therefore, advocates restitution to the victim by the offender rather than retribution by the state against the offender (Maiese, 2004, p.1). Restorative justice is achieved by including the offender, victims and the community. This is beneficial in that this process involves all of the individuals who were affected by the crime committed. Examples of restorative justice would include crime victim awareness education for the offender and the offender being held responsible for paying restitution and performing community service. Hayes (2005) notes that another goal and objective of restorative justice is decreasing recidivism. Although there are those such as Beven (2005) that argue that restorative justice has no significance as related to recidivism, Hayes (2005) advocates that restorative justice not only can prevent recidivism but it can deter other potential criminals. In examining deterrence, there are two main ideas that encompass the theories of how to decrease recidivism as well as how to prevent crime altogether. The concepts are general deterrence and specific deterrence. While the general deterrence theory advocates that individuals will commit crimes when there is no fear of punishment, specific deterrence focuses on punishing offenders in order to prevent them from violating the laws that were broken. It is important to note that it is the theory of specific deterrence that utilizes negative sanctions in order to prevent further acts of crime. In researching the various theories of deterrence, the question arises as to whether general deterrence is effective considering that this theories focus is based on an individuals ability to determine whether or not apprehension is a certainty? According to Keel (2005), research as related to capital punishment indicated that the general deterrence theory is not effective. Keel (2005) further notes that there is minimum relevance when considering capital offenses in the states which utilize the death penalty. This noted ineffectiveness in regards to the theories of deterrence also raises the question as to whether incapacitation is an appropriate sentencing option. Incapacitation focuses on the belief that in order to ensure public safety, that it is acceptable and appropriate to incarcerate an individual not necessarily for what they have done, but in order to prevent that individual from committing a crime. It is apparent that incapacitation depends solely on the abilities of the Judge, prosecuting attorney, public defenders as well as local community correction programs to have the skills and education to identify those individuals that have the potential to re-offend. When examining the various forms of sentencing that are currently utilized in contemporary criminal justice systems, home confinement, drug court, day reporting centers and incarceration would all appear to provide a form of incapacitating effect, while sentencing an offender to unsupervised probation, unsupervised home confinement or simply sentencing the offender to pay a fine would not exhibit an incapacitating effect. It is obvious that the ultimate and permanent form of i ncapacitating an offender would be sentencing an individual to the death penalty. While ultimately the goal of sentencing is to provide public safety and to reduce recidivism, the question arises as to whether it would be more cost effective to incapacitate only those offenders who have committed violent crimes and who have increased risk factors that would that would lead one to believe that the offender was capable of committing dangerous crimes. With the importance that is currently being placed on the prison overcrowding, it is sensible to advocate that more offenders should be placed into home confinement or community correction programs which have the resources to offer intense supervision, in order to utilize the prisons that are available for strictly the goal of incapacitation. Rehabilitation versus punishment is a strong consideration when researching the goals of sentencing. While deterrence and a decrease in recidivism are the components that each community strives to meet, each society has a responsibility to consider rehabilitation when enforcing sentencing. Rehabilitation allows an offender the opportunity to become educated about their behavior and affords the offender the chance for change. Although rehabilitation is most commonly utilized with juvenile offenders, it is important to note that rehabilitation has been shown to be effective with the adult offender population when you examine the results that the community correction programs are reporting over the last few years. Incarceration does not offer programs or have a process in which rehabilitation can be offered to offenders and the cost of incarceration far exceeds the costs associated with rehabilitation. Rehabilitation also clearly satisfies the goals of restorative sentencing in that the majority of community correction based programs that exist today have requirements that participants pay their restitution and perform set hours of community service in the community that was offended. It should also be noted that crime victim awareness programs are becoming increasingly p opular in community programs today which educate offenders on how their actions not only affect them, but how the same actions affected the victim and their families. Conclusion The goals of sentencing are important and necessary if society is to maintain order and stability. While contemporary criminal justice systems remain influenced by politics, research supports the theory that increasing the number of offenders that are incarcerated may in fact look like a community is getting tough on crime, but the underlying issue is that this method does nothing for decreasing recidivism; thus in effect, as long as society views incarceration as the choice for punishment, societies will continue to contribute to the increasingly high prison cost as well as contributing negatively to recidivism rates. There are numerous sentencing options available today that clearly satisfy incapacitation, deterrence, retribution, rehabilitation and restoration. Probation, parole, home confinement, day reporting centers, and drug court are all viable options for offenders who are non-violent and pose no danger to society. Rehabilitation offers not only a way to satisfy deterrence, restoration and retribution but it can also contribute to incapacitation in that offenders can be court ordered to locked down psychiatric prisons and rehabilitation centers. It is my belief that there is a need for guidelines in regards to maintaining a consistency between the crime committed and the punishment; yet if it stands true that society is a product of individuals, then society must embrace the effort that the focus can no longer be placed on incarceration but on alternative programs and alternative sentencing in order that the needs of the offenders can be met which in turn allows society to place a positive emphasis on deterrence as well as recidivism.
Friday, October 25, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"A technology evolves within a culture and its particular demands and preoccupations, intertwined with that societyÃ¢â¬â¢s particular environment (Teresi, 356)Ã¢â¬ . As the human race and daily life becomes more advanced, there are times when it becomes necessary to consider the variables that influence our society. These variables-religion, tradition, environment, etc. - make up the culture of a society. New technologies are created when the people living in a particular society feel that one of these variables needs to be expanded upon or changed (Discovery Channel, Feb. 11). A particularly relevant example is the United States Space program. The space program grew out of the Cold War in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The technological needs of this effort, specifically small computers, heat resistant ceramics, radio communication, and power cells lead to the products and devices that we enjoy today. Societies, with their specific cultural needs, influenced the development of their own technology. For example, the Chinese in ninth century A.D. were fascinated with perfumes, noxious bombs, explosions, gases, and smoke. They burned incense and fumigated their houses for health as well as spiritual reasons. In the Chinese culture, smoke and loud explosions were connected to the spiritual and supernatural world. Chinese priests invented gunpowder by combining charcoal, saltpeter, and sulfur. Their military-centered society saw the advantages gunpowder gave them in battle situations as well. The Chinese were the first to invent land mines, fire lances, and grenades. When Europeans learned about gunpowder, they began experimenting (Teresi, 355-56). Before long, cannons and guns were invented and warfare would never be the same aga... ... purposes, would the history of war have changed? It is probable that gunpowder would have eventually been invented, but who would have discovered it and when? What was their culture like; would the smoke and fumes make them feel connected to supernatural beings or would gunpowder strictly be used for war? Just like the space program created cultural needs and wants over fifty years ago, culture continues to be the driving force for technological developments. Sources Chant, Colin, "Chapter 2: Greece" in Pre-industrial Cities and Technology, Routledge Press, 1999, pp. 48-80. Ehrlich, Paul R., "Ch.11: Gods, Dive-Bombers, and Bureaucracy" in Human Natures: Genes Cultures, and the Human Prospect, Island Press, 2000, pp. 253-279. Teresi, Dick, Lost Discoveries: The ancient roots of modern science, Simon and Schuster, 2002, ISBN 0-684-83718-8, pp. 325-367.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of human changes across their life span. It is important to study psychological development to understand how and why people go through certain changes throughout their life. There are many different areas of psychological development. Two main areas are perceptual development and emotional development. They both have theories that can be related, but before you can understand the relations, you must first understand the two theories. The theory of perceptual development was created by an American Psychologist named Eleanor Gibson. It states that perceptual development is the process of an infant exploring its constantly changing environment and deciding what to do and how to act with the newly found information. Affordance exploration is also a key feature of perceptual development. Gibson believed that affordances are visual clues to the functions of an object. An example could be a person climbing a ladder. The infant could examine how the ladder needs to have a stable base and lean against a certain object to keep from falling down. When affordances are found, differentiation starts to occur. GibsonÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of differentiation is basically the ability to discriminate different environments. If you look back at the ladder example, the infant uses affordances to see the ladder needs support to stay upright. Then the infant uses differentiation to see a person is more safe standing in the middle step of a ladder than the top step. As the infant experiences more and ages, it becomes better at differentiation. Emotional development is based around a theory called the attachment theory which was created by a British psychiatrist named John Bowlby. The attachment theory is the act of developing an affectional bond with someone who is considered a caregiver (BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s definition was Ã¢â¬Å"a lasting psychological connectedness between human beingsÃ¢â¬ ). It is crucial for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior in the present and future to have an attachment relationship with a caregiver. Bowlby stated that for an attachment to be strong, four characteristics need to be present: proximity maintenance (the desire to be in the presence of the caregiver), safe haven (returning to the caregiver when feeling unsafe), secure base (considering the caregiver as a source of security) and separation distress (feeling anxious when the caregiver is not present for an extended period of time). Bowlby believed that strong attachment relationships develop after the caregiver and child become closer. Mary Ainsworth (a previous student of Bowlby) was an American Psychologist who believed that there are three types of attachments: secure, avoidant and resistant. A secure attachment is formed when the caregiver is used as a safe home and the infant feels less safe when the caregiver is absent than when they are present. An avoidant attachment is basically the opposite of a secure attachment. It is when the caregiver is considered a stranger by the child and they try to avoid the caregiver as much as possible to feel safer. A resistant attachment is a lot more complex than the other types of attachments. It occurs when the caregiver is unresponsive to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s needs making them feel unsure what they want or need which makes them feel unable to count on their caregiver. There are some relationships between the theory of perceptual development and the attachment theory. According to the two theories, both require a responsible caregiver for a child to have a proper and healthy development to be able to experience affordances and to have the right caregiver provide the environment to do it in. Also, your caregiver could be responsible for a child not learning certain affordances which could affect them in their future life. Another way to look at it is if a caregiver never provided the chance for the child to experience affordances related to a job that requires experience in, say, the construction industry, then they will struggle psychologically in the future to earn that job or any job that they may want. Perceptual and emotional development are both very important to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological development. It is important to understand the two main theories behind them to learn what is required for a child to develop healthy and normally to live the life that they want to live.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"OthelloÃ¢â¬ was a play written by William Shakespeare in 1603. This play is a tragedy written in iambic pentameter, with a noble hero named Othello and a devious villain called Iago. Iago changes the story for the worst as he causes Othello to commit suicide and murder his loyal wife because of his fatal flow which is jealousy. The opening of the play confuses the audience for Iago and Roderigo are arguing over Desdemona. The audience may also be confused for they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know who the characters are and why they are having this discussion. The confusion and chaos in the play is related to when Queen Elizabeth died for this is how the country felt at the time and were in the middle of a controversy. They may also be shocked when the performance first starts for on stage would have been the first black male performer as there was a lot of prejudice at the time. Act 1 scene 1 begins with an argument between Iago and Roderigo as this was an effective way to start a play as it gets the audience hooked, because they want to find out what they are arguing about. Iago is ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s villain and the audience almost immediately become aware of this hence he has been taking money from a character named Roderigo. This is because Iago was accepting money from him to try and persuade Desdemona to meet Roderigo. We can show this for he says Ã¢â¬Å"That thou, Iago, who hast my purse as if the strings were thineÃ¢â¬ . This shows that Iago can manipulate people very easily he feels he is like a puppeteer been able to have control people. This may make the audience feel sympathetic for Roderigo because he has been duped by his trusted friend. Shakespeare is presenting Iago immediately in a negative light for he contrasts him with the well spoken Roderigo. We also know that theatre was the best kind of entertainment in the early 1600s. However, also in act I scene I, Shakespeare allows the audience to feel some sympathy for Iago because he loses his position of lieutenant to Michael Cassio. We can show this as he says Ã¢â¬Å"I have already chose my officer.Ã¢â¬ And what was he? Forsooth, a great arithmetician,. One Michael Cassio, a Florentine. That never set a squadron in the field, nor the division of a battle knows more than a sinister-unless the bookish theatricsÃ¢â¬ . At thisÃ part the audience start to feel sorry for Iago because it should have been him who got the promotion. Othello knows that Iago can fight well in battle as it quotes Ã¢â¬Å"And I of whom his eyes had seen the proof at Rhodes, at Cyprus and on other groundsÃ¢â¬ . This makes the audience confused on why Othello gave the position to Cassio and not Iago. In the text it says Ã¢â¬Å"Forsooth, a great arithmeticianÃ¢â¬ showing that Cassio is intelligent, however not strong in battle. In the first scene, Iago states Ã¢â¬Å"It is as sure as you are Roderigo, Were the moor, I would not be Iago, In following him, I follow myselfÃ¢â¬ which is showing that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t follow OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s orders and makes his own decisions in what he thinks is right. Later, he says Ã¢â¬Å"I am not what I amÃ¢â¬ which insists that he is following Othello as a loyal, honest friend when the audience, myself and Roderigo know the true side to him. This is shown because Iago and Roderigo wake Brabantio up in the middle of the night by shouting vulgar comments at his window. They awake Brabantio by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Awake! What, ho, Brabantio! Thieves! Thieves! Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags! Thieves! Thieves!Ã¢â¬ . This shows the audience that they both have no respect, even though Brabantio is a senator. We know this because Iago says to Roderigo Ã¢â¬Å"Do, with like timorous accent and dire yell as when, by night and negligence, the fire is spied in populous citiesÃ¢â¬ . This shows the audience that Iago can get people to do anything he wants them to do, backing up the point that he is like a puppeteer. By awaking brabantio in the middle of the night and saying Ã¢â¬Å"Look to your house, your daughterÃ¢â¬ , it would make him check that Desdemona is in the bed, but as she is absent from the house, this would expose desdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s secret to her father. The audience would also feel shocked and disgusted in Iago and Roderigo for they are grown men and are showing a low level of maturity. Iago later shouts Ã¢â¬Å"Even now, very now, an old black ram is tupping your white eweÃ¢â¬ insisting that Othello and Desdemona are having sexual intercourse at this moment in time. The audience can now see that Iago is rude, arrogant, foul mouthed and has low social class. In this scene Shakespeare presents Iago as a devious and manipulative man. One way he does this is that Iago sets up a confrontation between Roderigo and Brabantio, then slyly walks of leaving Roderigo to bear the brunt ofÃ Brabantio`s anger. However, IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s ultimate aim is to get revenge on Othello because he gave his promotion to Michael Cassio, even though he is far better in battle and has proved this when Iago says Ã¢â¬Å"Of whom his eyes had seen the proof at Rhodes, at Cyprus and on other groundsÃ¢â¬ . This shows that Othello has seen that he rightfully deserved the position of lieutenant. In act I scene I, Iago is twisting BrabantioÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and poisoning it with hatred towards Othello in order to make Brabantio urge to cause trouble for him. I think this shows the audience that Iago being cowardly because instead of facing up to Othello and speaking to him about his disagreement for he makes Brabantio and Roderigo work for him. He does this so he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get his trust put into question by Othello. This could also lead to him being called a traitor. He is also represented as being manipulative with this quote, Ã¢â¬Å"As if the strings were thineÃ¢â¬ saying that he is like a puppeteer with control over whoever he chooses which later in the play, his skills will pay off as his plan comes into action by getting everyone against each other and it results in mass murder though suspicious Iago aroused. In addition, right at the end of act I scene I, Iago directs Roderigo in the direction of Othello making him in control of the situation showing how easily manipulated Roderigo is. Pace is built throughout the beginning of the first scene when Iago is making long speeches and rants about Othello. The pace rapidly increases when it gets to the point where Roderigo is under IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s spell and is convinced by what he is saying. This is when Iago encourages him to tell Brabantio about Othello and Desdemona, Ã¢â¬Å"Call up her father, rouse himÃ¢â¬ . As soon as Roderigo agrees and begins to wake Brabantio, IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence rises as he knows he has accomplished the first part of his devious scheme to get revenge on Othello. Tension is built during the first part of the scene when Iago is giving his monologue, it is an emotional speech and Roderigo learns a lot about him from it. For example, when he says Ã¢â¬Å"I wear my heart upon my sleeveÃ¢â¬ , we know he is not an honest, decent person. It is tense because Roderigo is confused about what to say as he is intimidated by Iago who is very arrogant and proud of himself. Towards the end of the scene, t he tension has eased and no one is anxious anymore because everything that needed to be said, has been. So in act I scene I, Iago isnÃ¢â¬â¢t everything he starts off as being represented as it would seem. We begin to believe his ploys of innocence and then they are greatly subverted and changed. Everything we are led to believe changes in minutes of reading as pity turns to hate, and friendship turns to duplicity and manipulation.